Thomas Lansdall-Welfare: “From Page to Machine and Back Again: Large-scale Content Analysis of Historical Periodicals”
The use of large datasets has revolutionized the natural sciences and is widely believed to have the potential to do the same in the social sciences and humanities. Many digitization efforts are currently underway, but the high-throughput methods of data production have yet to lead to a comparable output in analysis. In this talk, I will discuss a few recent, large-scale studies of historical periodicals, going from the page (and microfilm) to data-driven quantitative analysis by machine and back again, following an approach that attempts to integrate distant and close readings of a corpus. Examples will cover macroscopic trends in history and culture, including gender bias, geographical focus, seasonal patterns and network analysis of 150 years of British and American periodicals, along with a look at a multilingual study focusing on the city of Gorizia between 1873 and 1914, where the emerging picture is one of rapid cultural, social and technological transformation, and of rising national awareness, combining the larger European pattern of the time with uniquely local aspects. ↑
Tom Lansdall-Welfare is a post-doctoral researcher in machine learning at the Intelligent Systems Lab in the University of Bristol. His research interests cover everything from the collection and storage of data at scale through to designing visualisations and interactive applications that use machine learning and natural language processing at their core.
His primary research focus is on large-scale content analysis, where he aims to discover and understand the underlying biases, relationships and patterns in data. He has worked extensively with computational pattern analysis problems in the domain of text and images, including social media, mainstream news, historical news archives and web data.
Tom received his PhD in Computer Science from the University of Bristol, under the supervision of Nello Cristianini, with his thesis titled “Discovering Culturomic Trends in Large-Scale Textual Corpora”. Previously, he received an M.Eng. in Engineering Mathematics from the University of Bristol.
Andrea Penso: “The Italian Reception of English Novels in the Long Eighteenth Century”
This paper stems from the collaborative research project The reception of the English novel in the Italian literary press between 1700 and 1830: a transcultural enquiry into the early shaping of the modern Italian literary and cultural identity. It aims at investigating the reception of English novels in the Italian literary press during the Long Eighteenth Century (1700-1830). Its main purpose is to uncover how the English novels were introduced to the Italian readership through literary journalism with the application of Digital Humanities methodologies of investigation. The first step of the project has been the cataloguing, analysis, and digitization of an existing set of data relative to the publication, dissemination, translations, critical reviews, and editorial advertisements of English novels in Italian literary newspapers and journals of the time. This material is at the base of an annotated and searchable digital repository, which consists of a Drupal-based software for corpora, and represents an immediate way to develop the research. This preliminarily created digital database will allow the subsequent computational, textual and critical surveys, starting from in-depth textual and spatial analysis and visualizations of popular reading trends in 18th and early 19th century Italy. The present paper therefore aims to show the two main lines of approach that will be applied in order to digitally explore the corpus. The first consists of a stylistic and linguistic analysis of the reviews, which will be pursued equalizing and comparing stylistic and lexical constellations belonging to different discursive practices from a number of periodicals and journalist. Digital stylometry, word frequency and statistical analyses will be used during this phase. The second line of approach will concern the spatial analysis of the data, which will be mapped thanks to GIS (Geographical Information System) digital tools integrated with Geo-criticism. The analysis will be supported by a careful survey of sources and their circulation, with a methodological approach combining Material Culture and Philology. Ultimately, the paper aims to show also how this project will create a methodological paradigm that may be extended to the study of the reception of English novels in the literary journalism of other Western European countries during the long 18th century. Even though the phenomenon of the reception of the English novels presents particular aspects for each country (e.g. morality was different in each nation, the importance of religion varies from country to country etc.), there are well defined functional aspects that can be studied with the same methodology that will be developed with this project: the reviews’ stylistic characteristics, their geographical distribution and the sociological impact of the divulgation of the novels are only a few of a series of important aspects that can be considered as constant features of this cultural phenomenon. Compared to previous studies, in fact, the Digital approach and methodology which will be developed with this research will allow to engage in a more comprehensive and systematic enquiry. ↑
Andrea Penso (°1987) obtained his Ph. D. at the Department of Philological and Literary Studies at the University of Padua in 2015, having worked on a project about Vincenzo Monti’s early poetical style and language. He is currently FWO Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Centre for Literary and Intermedial Crossings of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (BE), working on a project which involves Comparative Literature and Digital Humanities, entitled The reception of the English novel in the Italian literary press between 1700 and 1830: a transcultural enquiry into the early shaping of the modern Italian literary and cultural identity. As from January 2018 he is Visiting Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Guelph (CA). Previously, he was a visiting Ph. D. student at the University of Oxford (UK) in 2013, and at the Sorbonne Nouvelle University – Paris 3 (FR) in 2014. He worked as a Italian lecturer at the Grenoble-Alpes University (FR) from 2014 till September 2017. His interests also involves 19th and 20th centuries Italian, French and English theatre and literature.
Ernest DeClerck: “The Limitation Game: Eternal Problems in the Study of Translation in Periodicals”
Although recent years have witnessed a lively interest in the periodical literature of the Romantic period (for example in the work of Ian Duncan, Mark Parker, Mark Schoenfield, and Angela Esterhammer), relatively few researchers have engaged with matters of translation, cultural transfer and mediation in this context. While Romanticism is generally seen as an insular and self-reflective period, it was actually “increasingly aware of a wide spread of world literature” (France, 2009). In fact, many of the literary magazines of the period competed with each other to attain cultural dominance precisely by means of foregrounding their engagement with foreign literatures. While the preface to the first issue of Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine (1817) stipulated that one of the ambitions of the editors was “to give […] a view of Foreign and Domestic Affairs”, the rival London Magazine launched its first issue (January 1820) by appealing to this notion of ‘Foreign Affairs’ in a bid to outplay its competitor: “to Foreign Criticism, therefore, and Foreign Literature generally, as well as to the theories and progress of the Fine Arts in the various National Schools of Europe, we shall pay an attention which has not been hitherto given to them in any similar publication” (v-vi).
This paper analyses the translation policies of both Blackwood’s and the London in order to bring into focus the ideological, economic and political dynamics that determined these editorial practices. The broader aim of this analysis is to arrive at a closer understanding of the position of non-British literatures in the late-Romantic literary marketplace and of the concrete translation processes that underpinned this mediation. Part of a larger doctoral research project, this paper will foreground and discuss methodological issues relating to this particular corpus, ranging from the analysis of digitized data to the necessity of interdisciplinarity and methodological flexibility. ↑
Ernest De Clerck (1993) is working on a Ph.D project on ‘The Reception and Translation of Foreign Cultures in British Romantic Literary Magazines, 1817-1830)’. More specifically, he is concerned with the political dynamics governing editorial practices. What do the reception and translation policies of magazines such as Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine and The London Magazine tell us about their ideology? The project is supervised by Tom Toremans (KU Leuven) and Frederik Van Dam (Radboud University).
De Clerck graduated as Master in Western Literature in 2015 and as Master in Literary Theories in 2016. He worked at the KU Leuven Culture Office for a year and a half before joining the Departement of Literary Studies as a doctoral researcher.
Melanie Hacke: “Metadata Mining: Translation in British Romantic Review Periodicals, 1809-1827”
Building on a quantitative survey that charts the presence of foreign cultures in the Edinburgh Review, Quarterly Review, and Westminster Review, this paper pursues a closer understanding of the ways in which British Romantic review periodicals engaged in intercultural mediation through translation. Whereas the Romantic review periodical has been amply studied by scholars such as Will Christie, Jonathan Cutmore, Massimiliano Demata, Duncan Wu, and Biancamaria Fontana, the role of the review as a cultural mediator has remained under-researched. In order to record and analyse the interaction between national literary systems in periodical discourse, I created an extensive database that inventorises the presence of translation in the three leading review periodicals of the Romantic period. By including a broad range of parameters, the database allows for a more precise location of translation in Romantic reviewing culture: the database not only documents the ratio between reviews of British and of non-British works, but also gauges the relation between foreign works reviewed in translation and those reviewed in their original language, the amount of translated passages and foreign-language quotations within the articles themselves, the disciplinary distribution of non-British texts, and (the diachronic development of) the different reception patterns that can be discerned in the three periodicals. As it is the first time that such quantitative analysis is being undertaken, this paper discusses methodological issues related to the construction and analysis of the database, including opportunities for data visualisation and the application of techniques derived from the digital humanities. My paper also zooms in on some of the problems I encountered while setting up this research project, such as the periodicals’ heterogeneous formats, or the difficult balance between distant reading of metadata and close readings of specific review articles. ↑
Melanie Hacke graduated as Master of Western Literature (English and Latin) at the University of Leuven in 2015, and as Master in Victorian Studies at the University of Exeter in 2016. Her Ph.D project ‘The Reception and Translation of Foreign Cultures in British Romantic Periodicals’ (2016-2020) is supervised by Professor Tom Toremans (KU Leuven Campus Brussels) and Professor Tom Mole (University of Edinburgh). Responding to the relative neglect of the study of translation in Romantic (periodical) scholarship, her project analyses how the Edinburgh Review, the Quarterly Review, and the Westminster Review engage with other cultures and literatures. Through a critical comparative analysis of transfer and translation, the project investigates how the periodicals’ editorial practices reflect their ideological positions in the British literary marketplace.
Publications: Hacke M. (2016). ‘”The Flaming Ramparts of the World”: The Function of Lucretius in Walter Pater’s Marius the Epicurean‘. English Text Construction, 9 (2), 222-243.
Marina Popea: “Bridging Textual and Historical Approaches: Theoretical and Methodological Grounds for the Study of Translation in Literary Magazines”
The lack of a defined theoretical and methodological framework for the study of translation in periodical publications is also a great opportunity to develop new tools. In an attempt to account for the role played by translation in literary change in Latin America, I have created a personal analytical model that integrates the different aspects of the phenomenon under scrutiny. As part of my doctoral research, I examine translated texts (particularly poetry) published in Mexican cultural periodicals from the 1890s to the 1930s. My corpus is thus composed of about 20 different magazines, the earliest of which have more than 100 issues each, as well as several hundreds translations in average. One of the challenges of such a corpus is the integration of qualitative and quantitative research, and the balance of the space allocated to each publication.
In theoretical terms, I propose an approach that contemplates both the symbolic and the material dimensions of my object, combining Bourdieusean sociology with polysystem studies, culturalist translation studies and book history. I consider translation as a symbolic production aimed at intervening in the literary struggles for cultural capital,1 especially as periodical publications can be seen as privileged media for this kind of intervention. Furthermore, and following Even-Zohar, I examine the ways in which this struggle is linked to cultural change over time. The main challenge, then, is to couple this structural perspective with close analysis of the translated texts.
The successful integration of what Bourdieu calls the “space of positions occupied in the social space,” and the “space of position-takings,”2 in the case of translations, can be accomplished through Jiři Levy’s conception of translation as a decision-making process.3 The decisions taken in the translation process, understood as manipulations of the text,4 are to be read from the perspective of the strategies prompted by said literary struggles. Thus, these decisions become a way to bridge the two spaces defined by Bourdieu, as they have concrete textual manifestations and also conform broader patterns in terms of poetics.
Regarding methodology, I propose an analysis of the translations on five different levels on which new meaning is created in order to intervene in the target literary field. These are the choice of the translated author, text selection, textual options (form, metrics, word choice etc.), intertextual relationships within the same issue and/or publication, and formal presentation (layout, illustrations). My model also includes a clear methodology for data collection and analysis for the case of literary magazines.
One of the strengths of this framework is that it integrates the textual level with other dimensions of the problem, thus successfully bridging intrinsic and extrinsic approaches (a divide that does not seem to make much sense in our case), close reading and macro cultural analysis. This is, in my view, indispensable in order to provide an organic account of cultural phenomena. ↑
1 Pierre Bourdieu, Practical Reason. On the Theory of Action. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998), 11.
2 Pierre Bourdieu, Practical Reason…, 15.
3 Jiři Levy, “Translation as a decision process. A traducao como um processo de tomada de decisao.” Trad. Gustavo Althoff y Cristiane Vidal. Scientia Traductionis 11 (2012): 72-96.
4 Andre Lefevere, Translation, Rewriting, and the Manipulation of Literary Fame, (London; New York: Routledge, 1992), Theo Hermans (ed.), The Manipulation of Literature. Studies in Literary Translation, (London; Syndey: Croom Helm, 1985).
After obtaining a Master’s degree in Cultural History and English at the University of Lausanne, and coming across the fascinating richness of Latin American literature, I decided to pursue a Latin American Studies MA in Chile. At the same time as I discovered literary translation as a creative practice, it also became a means of bringing together my different areas of academic interest (anglophone and francophone literatures, as well as Latin American cultural history).
I have had the opportunity to study translation in different contexts, focusing on Latin American translational projects from various locations and periods, including those of Cuban poet Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda (on which I have published an article in the Revista de Estudios Hispánicos), the Nicaraguan avant-garde (José Coronel Urtecho and Ernesto Cardenal), Jorge Luis Borges, Mexican magazine Contemporáneos, and eventually Cuban Orígenes, on which I then wrote my dissertation. I have been working with field theory from the beginning, progressively adding interpretative layers as the complexity of the studied objects grew. All these projects, as well as my PhD research, have been presented and discussed in conferences and seminars in Chile, Argentina, the United States, England, and soon Spain, with the upcoming LASA Conference.
This is the context in which I have developed my own approach to translation in periodical publications. The results of my MA research will be published shortly in Chile, in a collective volume on magazines and intellectual networks in Latin America (currently in press). This model has proved so rich and productive that I have decided to build on my previous research and am now reading for a PhD degree at the University of Oxford. As part of my present research, I am examining a wide range of Mexican cultural magazines, from the modernista period to the avant-garde, in order to study, from a historical perspective, the changes occurring in the uses and functions of translation in periodical publications. They are analysed in relation to the establishment of a modern literary field, contemplating both material changes (such as the evolution of publishing techniques) and symbolic ones (changes in poetics for instance).
I also have practical translation experience, having participated in various collective translation workshops and projects. From these, two books have been published, El hombre que miraba el cielo, pentalingual anthology of Jenaro Talens’s poetry (Granada: Jizo de literatura, 2013), as part of which I contributed to the collective translation into French, and Los sonidos diminutos, complete poetical works of T.E. Hulme (Santiago de Chile: Calabaza del Diablo, 2014), translated into Spanish along with Fernando Concha.
Alexia Kalantzis: “Pour une autre histoire de la traduction : les périodiques artistiques et littéraires de la fin du 19e siècle”
Les périodiques artistiques et littéraires de la fin du 19e siècle apparaissent comme un moyen de diffusion privilégié de la littérature étrangère. En France, des « petites » revues comme le Mercure de France ou la Revue blanche accordent ainsi une place importante à la littérature étrangère par l’intermédiaire de chroniques, parfois tenues par des écrivains étrangers, de publications d’extraits traduits et de collections de littérature étrangère. Or ces revues à petite diffusion, mais dont l’influence n’est plus à démontrer, adoptent une logique différente de celle des journaux et des grandes revues. Leur manque de moyens limite la réalisation et la diffusion des traductions, mais leur apport est essentiel dans l’histoire de la traduction et des transferts culturels. En nous appuyant sur la méthodologie de l’histoire culturelle (Alain Vaillant, Jean-Yves Mollier) et sur l’étude des réseaux des revues (Daphné de Marneffe, Evanghelia Stead), nous montrerons la spécificité des logiques de la traduction dans ces supports. La traduction doit être étudiée dans ses liens avec les réseaux européens des revues, et doit être mise en perspective à travers la critique qui l’accompagne. Mais sa mise en valeur s’avère problématique, les traductions sont souvent dissimulées et éparpillées dans des rubriques variées, et le passage au livre, malgré la création de maison d’édition et de collections de littérature étrangère, est souvent limité. ↑
Docteur en littérature française et comparée (Université Paris IV-Sorbonne) et actuellement en poste à l’Université de Cergy-Pontoise, je travaille sur les périodiques artistiques et littéraires à la fin du 19 e siècle (réseau européen des revues, plurilinguisme et traduction). Je prépare actuellement une Habilitation à diriger des recherches sur le thème suivant : « Plurilinguisme et traduction dans les périodiques artistiques et littéraires (1880-1914) ».
« The ‘little magazine’ as publishing success. Le Scapin (1885-1886), La Pléiade (1886-1890), Le Mercure de France (1890-1965) », dans A Critical and Cultural History of Modernist Magazines, volume 3, sous la direction de Peter Brooker et Andrew Thacker, Oxford Press, 2013, p. 60-75.
« À la recherche d’un modèle éditorial : les revues de Giovanni Papini et les revues françaises à l’aube du XX e siècle », Revue de littérature comparée, n°351, 2014/3, p. 285-309
« Le réseau des revues entre France, Italie et Autriche : Le Mercure de France, Leonardo et Hyperion, à paraître dans le volume L’Europe des revues II, éd. Evanghelia Stead et Hélène Védrine
« Les transferts culturels à travers les périodiques pendant la première guerre mondiale (France, Allemagne, Suisse) », Écrire la guerre, écrire le conflit, Fiona Mcintosh-Varjabédian, Toshio Takemoto,Joëlle Prunglaud et Norah Giraldi dei Cas (dir.), Éditions du Conseil Scientifique de l’Université de Lille 3, 2016, p. 151-165
« Les écrivains du Mercure de France dans les revues italiennes (1890-1914) », journée d’étude « Écrivains et artistes français dans les revues italiennes (1880-1920) », organisée par Julien Schuh, Université de Padova, 22 juin 2016, La Revue des Revues, n°58, 2017, p.77-85
« L’ambition du périodique européen : les revues de langue française en Italie au début du XXe siècle », séminaire Transfopress, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin, avec le soutien du LabEx Patrima, « La presse francophone dans le monde », organisé par Michel Rapoport, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, 4 mars 2014.
Clément Dessy: “Hybridity and Cosmopolitan Attitudes: Literary Translations in fin de siècle Periodicals of the 1890’s”
The number of small artistic and literary journals strongly increased from the end of the 1880’s onwards. These hybrid tools were linked to several kinds of cultural enterprises such as galleries, publishing houses, theatres and they belonged to an avant-garde life in which literary translation was not a secondary activity. Translation truly contributed to the organisation of many small journals of this period: it produced polemics and helped these journals make their own new aesthetical tendencies. In France, La Revue blanche is a good example of a journal where translations of Russian and Nordic authors nourished literary disputes. The journal notably supported the promotion of Ibsen for the Théâtre de l’Œuvre at the same time. The Belgian Société nouvelle also specialised in putting together newly translated works (Nietzsche, Pater, Kropotkine, Wilde, etc.) with newly produced texts by Belgian and French authors. Besides, some periodicals also used translation for more beneficial endeavours such as La Revue blanche with Henryk Sienkiewicz’s novel, Quo Vadis, in 1900, whose publication resonated with other recently published antique novels by Pierre Louÿs and Alfred Jarry. Various other forms of interaction can be observed with the publishing houses linked to these two journals: the publishing in volumes do not exactly duplicate the content of the journals but rather complement them. In a nutshell, through translated works, La Revue blanche and La Société nouvelle (among many other journals such as L’Ermitage or else The Savoy and The Yellow Book in England) leant on wider network of organisations and participated in a ‘querelle des nationalistes et cosmopolites’ at the fin de siècle, like Maurice Barrès called it.
This paper will discuss how these interactions were particularly strong in small literary journals, going beyond the simple act of transnational mediation. It will show how they involved the journal as a whole, seeking to define its own legitimacy and to make translation as literary news by carefully selecting the translated works. It will also show, on the other hand, how the translator for small literary and artistic journals could invest various other literary or artistic activities, such as art criticism, music performance, writing, etc. and use his/her practice of translation as tool to gain symbolic profit (Georges Khnopff defined himself as a ‘translator artist’, for instance). In order to achieve this, the paper will assess the place of literary translation in a small selection of French, Belgian and British fin de siècle periodicals (La Revue blanche, L’Ermitage, La Société nouvelle, The Yellow Book and The Savoy). By comparing the careers of their most prominent translators in relation with the selection of translations they made, it will demonstrate how fin de siècle journals aimed at embodying a community of taste around these works. At last, it will analyse from a larger perspective how the publication of several of these translations interacted with other events occurring on the cultural scene, such as theatre performances, polemics, art exhibitions, etc. This will demonstrate how translations in periodicals fully participated in the fin de siècle culture and how they shaped literary and cultural history. ↑
Clément Dessy est Assistant Professor en études françaises à l’Université de Warwick (dès septembre 2017). Diplômé de l’Université libre de Bruxelles et de l’Université catholique de Louvain, il est spécialiste de la littérature et de l’histoire de l’art françaises. Ses recherches actuelles portent sur l’étude des rapports entre traduction et création littéraire, aux échanges culturels transnationaux (notamment entre la Belgique et l’Angleterre autour de 1900) et au cosmopolitisme littéraire et artistique. Il s’intéresse aussi aux échanges entre la littérature et les arts visuels, ayant consacré une recherche à l’influence des peintres nabis et de Paul Gauguin sur les écrivains symbolistes, publiée sous le titre de Les écrivains et les Nabis. La littérature au défi de la peinture (Prix du Musée d’Orsay, Presses universitaires de Rennes). Il est co-directeurde la revue COnTEXTES.
Francis Mus: “Translation and Internationalisation – Translation as Internationalisation in Europe after the First World War. Some Methodological Principles”
In Belgium, like in the rest of Europe, the shock of the First World War resulted in a range of initiatives that, on the artistic level, radically called into question a number of fundamental concepts. A notion such as ‘internationalism’ became the subject of a harsh battle for definition that was carried out in many literary and artistic magazines. Because of their international circulation, periodicals were the ideal place to conduct this discussion.
In my paper, I will first look deeper into how this term was defined within the artistic group of the Brussels magazine L’Art libre (1919-1922). How did, within this specific genre of periodical publications, magazines as L’Art libre try to develop an auto-image of being ‘international’? How did the editors promote the inclusion of specific columns dealing with foreign literatures? Did they make use of correspondents ‘on the spot’? Did they publish their texts in original language or in translation? Did they present those texts as translations? How? To what extent this internationalism may come into conflict with a focus on the local (here: Flemish) reality? Next to the analysis of L’Art libre, I will also include examples of other magazines from the same period, such as the Flemish magazine Het Overzicht [‘The Survey’].
This analysis will then allow me to formulate a number of methodological principles. More in particular, I will examine the way in which the genre or the medium of the literary magazine determines the paratext of the translations. Which paratextual strategies can be used in order to create different functions for translations within the framework of a magazine? For example: the effect of the fragmentary character of a translation (shorter pieces or a sequence in several issues), the (im)possibility of foot- or endnotes, the way translations fit (or not) in existing features of the magazine, etc. ↑
Francis Mus (1983) works as ‘chargé de cours’ at the University of Liège, Belgium, and as research assistant at the University of Leuven, Belgium. He wrote a PhD on the internationalisation of the Belgian avant-garde. His interests concern periodical studies, translation and writing in multilingual spaces. He wrote several articles on this topic, amongst others on Leonard Cohen and Milan Kundera. In 2015, he published his book (in Dutch) De demonen van Leonard Cohen.
Alison E. Martin: “Turning Points: Translation and Reconfiguration in the German Literary Magazine Karussell”
The short-lived but vibrant magazine Karussell (1946-48) emerged onto a complex post-war European literary scene. Published in the West German city of Kassel, a centre for avant-garde cultural activity in the American occupied zone, this journal played a key role in showcasing literary and artistic talent and had a surprisingly large print run of 35,000 copies. Inspired by Rilke’s poem The Carousel, it included work by leading German interwar authors such as Hermann Hesse and Ina Seidel. But it was also a forum for publications, in German translation, by British modernists, including Virginia Woolf, Vita Sackville-West and Hector Hugh Munro (Saki). These translations were significant in lending the journal its truly international character, and in locating it within wider political and cultural debates about what constituted European identity, at a time when readers were struggling to make sense of their post-war world. They were also instrumental in differentiating the character and intended readership of Karusell from similar German-language publications such as Wort und Tat [Word and Deed] (1946-47) and Sinn und Form [Meaning and Form] (founded in 1948).
This paper contends that despite ground-breaking work done on modernist journal culture (Brooker and Thacker 2013), relatively little attention has been paid to the study of translations in periodicals and their relationship to the specific market conditions in which they appeared. It offers a quantitative analysis of which source languages and cultures were most frequently tapped for contributions to this volume and tries to reconstruct some of the international networks in which these authors (and their translators) operated. By examining the pivotal role these translations played in rekindling interest in British modernist writing, fostering the international reputations of newer writers on the European literary scene and testing experimental literary ideas, this paper offers a new perspective on the energetic contribution translation made to the revival of supranational literary exchange in the immediate post-war European literary market. ↑
From 1 st September 2018, I will be Professor of British Studies at the Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz/Germersheim. I have taught and researched for over 15 years in the area of Anglo-German cultural relations, publishing history and translation. The field of journal studies is central to my current research project located at the intersection of translation, British modernism and 20th-century journal culture. I have just co-edited a special issue of Modernist Cultures (2018) which presents initial findings of this research, which has also been benefited from a Visiting Fellowship from the University of Indiana and the University of Reading’s 2020 Fellowship Fund.
Hanno Ehrlicher: “The Magazine as a Medium of Cultural Translation: a Prologue for Future Collaborative Transnational Research”
En el hasta ahora penúltimo panfleto (número 15 de septiembre de 2017) del Literary Lab, Franco Moretti constata “One thing for sure: digitization has completely changed the literary archive”. Y es cierto también que él mismo ha sido uno de los promotores más relevantes de nuevos métodos para interpretar este archivo aumentado de la literatura, más allá de la experiencia lectora directa. Pero no basta tan solo con insistir en el reto metodológico que implica una interpretación cuantitativa de los materiales digitalizados frente a la tradicional lectura hermenéutica cualitativa, porque el archivo aumentado de la literatura significa más que su aumento cuantitativo. Significa también una reestructuración cultural de la archivística que durante siglos ha sido la base fundamental sobre la que se ha llevado a cabo una labor cultural marcada por la lógica territorial, ya que la función de los archivos era guardar y custodiar los tesoros de sus respectivos contextos.
El estudio de las revistas culturales hasta ahora ha estado delimitado por las fronteras que imponían las políticas territoriales de los archivos, pero esta situación va cambiándose a medida en que la digitalización de los materiales produce no sólo un aumento cuantitativo del archivo de la literatura, sino también a su reestructuración cualitativa: al ofrecer sus digitalizados en la red, estos son susceptibles de ser leídos de otro modo y de desterritorializarse.
Aunque nuestra contribución no tratará de las traducciones en las publicaciones periódicas —si bien las hay en el corpus de revistas culturales provenientes tanto de la Península ibérica como de los diversos contextos culturales latinoamericanos que estudiamos en nuestro proyecto— sí que trataremos el aspecto de la traducción cultural, ya que entendemos las revistas como mediadoras entre los diversos contextos nacionales que trabajan en la construcción de una “nación imaginada” transnacional en la que el idioma fue capaz de unir, pero también de desunir.
Intentaré aclarar esta idea con algunos ejemplos relacionados con nuestro corpus de investigación, pero también elaborar, más allá del estudio de determinados casos, propuestas metodológicas generales para el análisis transnacional de las revistas como medios de traducción entre culturas literarias diversas. ↑
Hanno Eherlicher ha sido desde 2011 profesor de Literatura Iberorrománica y director del Instituto de Investigaciones sobre España, Portugal y América Latina en la Universidad de Augsburgo (www.uni-augsburg.de/institute/isla/) antes de cambiar, en abril de 2018, a la cátedra de Literaturas Iberorrománicas de la Universidad de Tubinga. Sus áreas de investigación son la literatura española de los siglos XVI y XVII, las vanguardias del siglo XX y el cine contemporáneo. Es coordinador principal del portal de investigación Revistas culturales 2.0 (http://www.revistas-culturales.de ) y del proyecto de investigación Cultural Magazines from “Modernismo” to Avant-Garde: Processes of Modernization and Transnational networks (http://gepris.dfg.de/gepris/projekt/327964298?language=en ).
Publicaciones relacionadas con el tema de la ponencia:
- Hanno Ehrlicher (Hg.): La revista “Los Raros” de Bartolomé Galíndez (1920). La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, 2012 [= Vol V de la Biblioteca Orbis Tertius, http://bibliotecaorbistertius.fahce.unlp.edu.ar/libros ]
- Hanno Ehrlicher (ed.): Between folk and highbrow. Popular culture and its functions in avant-garde magazines of the 1920s and 1930s. = PhiN – Philologie im Netz, Beiheft 6/2013. [URL http://web.fu-berlin.de/phin/beiheft6/b6i.htm ]
- Hanno Ehrlicher/ Nanette Rißler-Pipka (eds.): Almacenes de un tiempo en fuga. Revistas culturales en la modernidad hispánica. Aachen: Shaker 2014. [Versiones en html y e-pub en https://www.revistas-culturales.de/de/buchseite/hanno-ehrlicher-nanette-ri%C3%9Fler-pipka-eds-almacenes-de-un-tiempo-en-fuga-revistas ]
Más informaciones biobibliográficas en: https://www.philhist.uni-augsburg.de/lehrstuehle/romanistik/hispanistik/vorlagen_Texte_Ehrlicher/Investigacion-Publicaciones.pdf
Christine Lombez: “Les traductions dans les périodiques français sous l’Occupation (1940-44)”
Durant la période de l’Occupation militaire allemande en France (1940-44), les revues culturelles et littéraires fleurissent, qu’il s’agisse de publications officielles, soutenues par les pouvoirs publics (voire publiées directement par l’Occupant), ou encore de feuilles sorties dans la clandestinité, en zone libre ou occupée, jusqu’en Afrique du Nord (Alger, Tunis, Rabat). Après avoir retracé l’historique du programme de recherches international TSOcc (Traductions sous l’Occupation) (www.tsocc.univ-nantes.fr) actuellement en cours sous notre direction, nous proposerons un état des lieux du dépouillement des périodiques effectué dans le cadre de ces travaux et évoquerons les problèmes méthodologiques posés par l’exploitation de ces données bibliographiques en vue de la constitution de la base de données bibliographique TSOcc. On s’intéressera également à l’orientation idéologique des divers périodiques dans leur rapport aux textes sources, à la place accordée aux traducteurs, et à la réflexion théorique sur la pratique de la traduction, alors très soutenue, dont ils se font souvent l’écho. ↑
Christine Lombez est Professeur de Littérature comparée à l’Université de Nantes et membre senior de l’Institut Universitaire de France (IUF) où elle dirige le programme de recherches international TSOcc « Traductions sous l’Occupation – France, Belgique 1940-44 » (www.tsocc.univ-nantes.fr). Ses recherches portent sur l’histoire de la traduction, la traduction poétique et les rapports de la politique et de la traduction (notamment la traduction en temps de guerre). Elle a co-dirigé (avec Y. Chevrel et L. d’Hulst) le volume Histoire des traductions en langue française 19 e siècle (HTLF 19) paru chez Verdier en 2012 et est l’auteur de nombreux travaux, livres et articles, sur la poésie traduite ainsi que sur l’histoire de la traduction en France et en Europe (www.christine-lombez.com).
Michele Sisto: “Literary Periodicals and Book Collections as Agents of Consecration: Thomas Mann and Franz Kafka in the Italian Literary Field (1915-1935)”
How can a translated author accumulate symbolic capital at the beginning of his trajectory in a new literary field? In Italy in the 20s Thomas Mann and Franz Kafka are known only to a few professionals, and the main publishing houses, which see no reasonable prospect of economic gain, are not keen to invest in the translation of their works. The challenge is taken over by a few new entrants in search of symbolic profits: literary periodicals such as Enzo Ferrieri’s Il Convegno and Piero Bargellini’s Il Frontespizio, and new publishing houses or book series such as Giuseppe Morreale’s Scrittori tedeschi (Morreale), Lavinia Mazzucchetti’s Narratori nordici (Sperling & Kupfer) or Franco Antonicelli’s Biblioteca Europea (Frassinelli), which get in touch with translators and mediators such as Alberto Spaini, Roberto Bazlen or Anita Rho. These actors of the ‘field of restricted production’ (Bourdieu) contribute not only to introduce the works of Mann and Kafka into the Italian literary field, but also to their first consecration, that is to that ‘primary accumulation’ of symbolic capital that in a few years would make of them an epoch-making phenomenon in Italian literary history. Driving from this case study and from a sketch of the Italian literary field around 1930 I will discuss how literary periodicals and book series may act as agents of consecration, according to their own position in the field, their symbolic capital, their relationships with foreign periodicals and publishing houses, and especially their recognition within literary circles. ↑
Michele Sisto is Associate Professor of German Literature at Università ‘Gabriele d’Annunzio’, Chieti-Pescara (Italy) and Principal Investigator of the Research Project ‘History and Digital Maps of German Literature in Italy in the 20th Century: Publishing, Field Structure, Interference’(MIUR, FIRB/Futuro in Ricerca 2013-2018).
Since 2004, he has been carrying out research on translated literature in Italy, considering it as part of the national repertoire together with the works of Italian writers. His publications focus both on major German writers (Goethe, Büchner, Karl Kraus, Gunther Anders, Günter Grass, Christa Wolf) and on their literary mediators in Italy (Benedetto Croce, Giuseppe Prezzolini, Giuseppe Antonio Borgese, Lavinia Mazzucchetti, Cesare Cases, Enrico Filippini, Erich Linder). Further publications range from literary theory to masculinity studies, from sociology of literature to internet studies.
He is editor of the book series ‘Letteratura tradotta in Italia’ (Quodlibet), board member of the series Quadrifoglio tedesco (Mimesis) and Alemanna (Mimesis), member of the editorial board of the journals Allegoria and Osservatorio critico della germanistica, and editor of the blog www.germanistica.net.
He is author of La letteratura tedesca in Italia. Un’introduzione (1900- 1920) (Quodlibet, 2018, with A. Baldini, D. Biagi, S. De Lucia, I. Fantappiè) and L’invenzione del futuro. Breve storia letteraria della DDR dal dopoguerra a oggi (Libri Scheiwiller, 2009, with F. Cambi, A. Chiarloni, M. Galli, M. Martini), and editor of Letteratura italiana e tedesca 1945-1970 (Studi Germanici, 2013, with I. Fantappiè).
[IT] “Riviste e collane come istanze di consacrazione: Thomas Mann e Franz Kafka nel campo letterario italiano (1915-1935)
Come si costituisce il capitale simbolico di un autore tradotto all’inizio della sua traiettoria nel campo letterario d’arrivo? Nell’Italia degli anni ’20 Thomas Mann e Franz Kafka sono noti solo a pochi addetti ai lavori: senza la prospettiva di un profitto economico le case editrici maggiori non sono disposte a investire nella traduzione delle loro opere. A portarle in Italia saranno alcuni nuovi entranti interessati piuttosto a ricavarne profitti simbolici: traduttori come Alberto Spaini e Lavinia Mazzucchetti, direttori di rivista come Enzo Ferrieri del «Convegno» e Piero Bargellini del «Frontespizio», nuovi editori come Giuseppe Morreale o direttori di nuove collane come la stessa Lavinia Mazzucchetti per i Narratori Nordici di Sperling & Kupfer e Franco Antonicelli per la Biblioteca Europea di Frassinelli. A questi attori del ‘campo di produzione ristretta’ (Bourdieu) si devono non solo le prime traduzioni da Mann e Kafka, ma anche l’accumulazione ‘primaria’ di un capitale simbolico che solo nel corso degli anni ’30 crescerà fino a superare lo stretto perimetro della società letteraria. A partire da una mappatura del campo letterario italiano intorno al 1930 discuterò come riviste letterarie e collane editoriali possano assumere il ruolo di istanze di consacrazione, considerando il loro posizionamento nel campo, il loro capitale simbolico, le cerchie entro cui sono riconosciute, i loro rapporti con riviste e case editrici straniere. ↑
Daniela La Penna: “Mapping Translation in the Italian Cultural Press (1920s-1950s): Trends, Strategies, and Distribution”
This paper draws on the extensive research on periodical press conducted for the collaborative project ‘Mapping Literary Space: Literary Journals, Publishing Firms, Intellectuals in Italy, 1940-1960’, funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council from 2012 to 2015. By exploiting wide-ranging empirical data sourced from digital repositories, including the project database, the paper will provide new insights into how Italian cultural journals engaged with translation from the 1920s to the 1950s.
The paper will show-case data on the visibility of translation in the journals under scrutiny. It will do so by comparing the presence and the use of translation of poetry and prose in two sub-sets of select journals: a selection of highly representative titles published during Fascism (from 1925 to 1943) and an equally exemplary choice of journals published in the period from the Liberation to the economic boom (1944-1960).
The ‘pre-war’ corpus includes publications characterised by an ostensible outlook of disinterestedness towards politics such as Solaria, Letteratura, La Critica, Orpheus, Pan, La fiera letteraria. In addition to these, I will consider journals aligned with Fascism, such as Il Bargello, L’Italia letteraria, Nuova antologia, and Primato. The empirical data on translation emerging from this sub-set will be compared with the data emerging from ‘post-war’ corpus, including publications such as Aretusa, Mercurio, Il Politecnico, Officina, Botteghe Oscure, Lo spettatore italiano, Sud, and Nuovi argomenti.
Preliminary results show that there is considerable scope to revisit the notion of cultural autarchy of the Fascist regime and how journals interpreted this notion (and to what aims). Furthermore, in the post-war period, engagement with translation seems to be subordinate to the domestic discourse linked to notions of cultural reconstruction and rebirth after Fascism.
This paper aims to contribute hard evidence paving the way to bold revisionist approaches to the role played by translation in the cultural press during the fascist regime and in the post-war years. Furthermore, the paper will also address the methodological challenges emerging from the attempts at systematizing a heterogeneous yet representative corpus of journals in terms of lifespan, readership, and editorial board’s social and symbolic capital. Building on theoretical and methodological considerations, the paper will provide answers to the following research questions:
• Can a general pattern of engagement with translation be discernible in each of the two sub-sets (pre-war/fascist publications vs post-war period)?
• Can differences in engagement with translation be identified from the comparison between sub-sets?
• How can these differences help us redefine the received notions on the visibility of translation in the periods under scrutiny?
• How does journal distribution affect engagement with translation in specific journals or periods?
• What strategies do journals use in show-casing translation to their intended readership?
• What role does translation play in the type literary communication envisaged and promoted by individual journals?
• To what extent does translated literature play also a political role in journals more explicitly aligned with political parties? ↑
Daniela La Penna is Associate Professor in Italian Studies at the University of Reading and Senior Editor of the journal The Italianist. Between 2012 and 2015, La Penna led as Principal Investigator the AHRC-funded project ‘Mapping Literary Space: Literary Journals, Publishing Firms and Intellectuals in Italy, 1940-1960’. She was also co-investigator on the Leverhulme-funded research network ‘Diasporic Literary Archives: Questions of Location, Ownership and Interpretation’ (2012-2014).
Daniela La Penna is the author of ‘La promessa d’un semplice linguaggio’: Lingua e stile nella poesia di Amelia Rosselli (Carocci, 2013), and the editor of Meneghello: Fiction, Scholarship, Passione civile (The Italianist, 2012). With Daniela Caselli, she has co-edited Twentieth-century Poetic Translations: Literary Cultures in English and in Italian (Continuum, 2008). With Mila Milani and Francesca Billiani, she has co-edited the following special issues: Mediating Culture in the Italian Literary Field 1940s-1950s (Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 2016); National Dialogues and Transnational Exchanges Across Italian Periodical Culture 1940-1960 (Modern Italy, 2016); Continuity and Rupture in the Italian Literary Field 1926-1960 (Italian Studies, 2018). She is currently completing a monograph on Benedetto Croce’s networks of influence on Italian culture.
Pablo Martínez: “Translation and Market Through Big Data: Spain-Latin America, 1900-1945”
This paper addresses the quantification of the literary production in Spanish during 1900 and 1946. To obtain quantitative data, we must consider both the catalogue records of main libraries and the newspaper and periodicals libraries. The majority of the latter include a large number of literary magazines, featuring articles and translations from peripheral authors- due to the abundant literary production of this period, these creators were overshadowed and historical narrative has forgot them.
Considering the lack of a proper cataloguing in newspaper and periodicals libraries (that on the other side have already digitised content), it is necessary to develop a workflow to make searches more massive and accurate by using new technologies and techniques. The ultimate aim of the proposed methodology is to build a meta catalogue that, for each record, allows to search for authors and their articles together with their translators or illustrators. Only in that way we will be able to obtain an overall image of that particular literary period, including all the authors and their works. ↑
Pablo Martínez is architect (School of Architecture of Barcelona) and co-founder of 300.000 Km/s, an urban planning firm that transversally addresses various areas of the discipline with an emphasis on exploring the opportunities that the use of new digital tools provides in the prefiguration of novel work methods and project scenarios.
The projects developed at 300.000 Km/s have been awarded with the first prize of the Civio Foundation-BBVA Data Visualisation Prize (2014), the Young Catalan Architects Award (2016 and 2014) Award in the category of the dissemination of architecture and essay, a nomination to the ODI Awards 2016, 4 finalist projects 4 finalist projects in the CityVis Prize 2016 hosted by the UN-Habitat conference, and an award-winning project and two finalists at the XIV Spanish Biennial of Architecture and Urbanism (2018).
His work has been exhibited at the Venice Biennial 2016 (the Ukraine Pavilion), the Chicago Arts Institute (2014), the Center for Contemporary Culture of Barcelona (2014), the cultural center Casa Encendida Madrid (2017) and CentroCentro Madrid (2016).
Yanna Guo: “La Politique de Pékin : la presse coloniale comme espace de traduction littéraire”
A partir de la fin du XIXe siècle, la presse étrangère foisonne sur le territoire chinois partiellement colonisé. Les journaux d’expression française se développent rapidement dans les concessions françaises mais également dans la capitale du pays. Le journaliste français, Alphonse Monestier, a fondé, à la veille de la Première Guerre mondiale, l’hebdomadaire La Politique de Pékin qui demeure pendant plus d’un quart de siècle « le plus important périodique français en Chine » (Zhao, Foreign Press in China). Préoccupé avant tout par l’horizon politique de la Chine en pleine voie de transformation, l’hebdomadaire d’informations générales s’inscrit dans la « mission civilisatrice » de la France et manifeste à cet effet un vif intérêt aussi bien pour la diffusion de la culture française que pour la connaissance de celle du pays dominé.
La Politique de Pékin dédie un espace permanent aux traductions de la littérature chinoise qui passe du traditionnel au moderne, signées par les sinologues français et les traducteurs autochtones, ces derniers étant les premiers à annoncer au monde francophone l’avènement de la « nouvelle » littérature chinoise. La plupart des œuvres traduites sont, par la suite, réunies en recueil pour être publiées en Chine et en France par la maison d’édition éponyme, contribuant aux échanges culturels qui furent pourtant marqués par le rapport de force entre ces deux mondes.
Pour explorer la contribution jusqu’ici inconnue de La Politique de Pékin dans la présentation et la traduction de la littérature chinoise, il importe d’abord d’esquisser, en prenant en considération le contexte socioculturel spécifique, les facteurs essentiels du périodique tels que l’éditeur, le projet rédactionnel, les contributeurs des articles et le public visé. Nous tâcherons ensuite de reconstituer, à l’aide d’une analyse quantitative fondée sur le recensement des textes traduits, le flux des traductions, de découvrir qui sont les traducteurs et comment leurs activités et leur « projet de traduction » (au sens où l’entend Antoine Berman) sont influencés par la vision culturelle de la presse dite « coloniale ». ↑
Guo Yanna, titulaire d’un doctorat en littérature comparée obtenu à l’Université de Nantes, est enseignante de français à l’Université de commerce international et d’économie (Pékin). Ses axes de recherches sont: la traduction des oeuvres de Lu Xun en France; les revues d’expression française en Chine au début du XXe siècle.
Meghan Forbes: “The Interwar Avant-Garde and Politics of Translation: A Case Study of the Multilingual Periodicals of the Czech Group Devětsil”
Founded in 1920 in a new Europe, Devětsil—a Czech group of young leftist artists and theorists—set out to create a distinctly modern avant-garde movement with broad international ties. This was a goal that Devětsil managed to achieve with remarkable success through a variety
of strategies, perhaps the most visible of which being its production of various periodicals, such as Disk, Pásmo, and ReD, which were circulated widely across Europe.
These Czech publications often featured at least some text in foreign languages, most often in German and French, to connect to a trans-European audience, and also included texts from these languages translated into Czech, to bring a visibility of the broader avant-garde movement to local readers. A notable example of the way a multilingual exchange was manifest in the pages of the magazines is in the first issue of ReD from October 1927, which opens with a poem by Phillipe Soupault, titled “Do Prahy” (“To Prague”), a reminiscence on the French author’s time in Prague earlier that same year. With the exception of the title and a line about the unforgettable taste of “bilá káva” (“white coffee”), both in Czech, the poem is reproduced in French, and is followed by a poem dedicated to Soupault by the Czech author Vítězslav Nezval, which is also published in French, now translated from Czech by Jiří Voskovec (better know for his work as an actor). A short poem by Guillaume Apollinaire from his book Calligrammes then appears, in this case printed in Czech and translated from French by the magazine’s editor, Karel Teige.
For the “Translation in Periodical Publications” conference, I propose to look at several specific examples—such as the one outlined above—of the use of translation and multilingualism in the magazines published by the Czech avant-garde in the 1920s, to discuss the modes by which a notably international group operating in a “minor” language was able to actively engage in broader transnational avant-garde networks. This paper will also discuss how the Czech avant-garde embraced the visual vocabulary of New Typography in order for its publications to be legible within a wider avant-garde network; even if their peers in other countries could not read the majority of textual content in the magazines, the publications could easily be understood graphically as relating to the wider conversation around the avant-garde aesthetics of the time.
Through the employment of data visualization software, I will also reveal in my presentation the wider corpus of magazines to which the Czech ones can be understood, mapping networks between major international figures (such as László Moholy-Nagy, Hannes Meyer, Ljubomir Micić, Tristan Tzara) and publications (i.e. Ma, Das Werk, Zenit, Dada) in the broader European context. The Czech situation offers a salient case study for better understanding how transnational and non-hierarchal modes of network formation were enacted via the periodical publications of the historical avant-garde. ↑
Meghan Forbes is the C-MAP Fellow for Central and Eastern Europe at The Museum of Modern Art and a Visiting Scholar at the Institute for Public Knowledge at New York University. She holds a PhD from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and has received numerous grants and fellowships for her work on the textual and visual iterations of the transnational avant-garde networks emanating from Prague and Brno in the period between the two World Wars. In 2014-2015 she held a Fulbright award to conduct research in Berlin, Germany. A compendium of essays titled International Perspectives on Publishing Platforms, of which Meghan is the sole editor, is forthcoming from Routledge.
Elke Brems and Jack Mc Martin: “Literary Journals as Crucibles of Translation (Theory). James Holmes and Delta”
James Stratton Holmes (1924-1986) is probably best known for his role as a ‘founding father’ of translation studies. But alongside his activities as a theorist, he was also a productive and much-lauded Dutch-to-English translator. Holmes moved from the United States to the Netherlands in 1950, where he quickly became an important bridge between the Dutch and Anglophone literary fields, both as a translator and in other mediating roles: editor, jury member, anthologist, essayist, activist, etc.
In this contribution, we want to focus on Holmes’ role as a translator and translation theorist for Delta. A Review of Arts, Life and Thought in the Netherlands. This celebrated, English-language literary journal, which published its first issue in 1958 and ran until 1974, aimed to draw international readers’ attention to Dutch culture. Holmes published many of his own poetry translations in Delta while also developing ideas about translation in essays and editor’s notes as the journal’s poetry editor and main advocate (see Holmes 1973-1974). Beyond serving as a flourishing venue for literature in translation, Delta was also a testing ground for theorizing translation and its role in the circulation of literature.
We combine sociological and discursive approaches brought together in the concept of ‘voice’ (see Hermans 2009 and Alvstad 2013) to explore the interplay between Holmes the translator and Holmes the theorist. Alvstad’s two categories of ‘voice as agency’ and ‘voice as textually manifested style’ provide a useful framework for combining extrinsic and intrinsic perspectives. This makes it possible to understand the role of Delta as a ‘transnational’ space where James Holmes, through a productive combination of translation and translation theory, honed ideas that would contribute to the founding of the discipline that owes him its name. ↑
Alvstad, Cecilia (2013) “Voices in Translation” In: Yves Gambier, Luc van Doorslaer, Handbook of Translation Studies 4 pp. 207-210.
Hermans, Theo (2009) “The Translator’s Voice in Translated Narrative” In: Mona Baker, Critical Readings in Translation Studies pp. 193-212.
Holmes, James S. (1973-1974) “On Matching and Making Maps: from a Translator’s Notebook” In: Delta. A Review of Arts life and Thought in the Netherlands, 16-4, pp. 67-82.
Holmes, James S. & Raymond van den Broeck (eds). (1988) Translated! Papers on Literary Translation and Translation Studies, Amsterdam: Rodopi. 111 pp.
Elke Brems is the head of the Department of Translation Studies at KU Leuven. Her research focuses on the circulation of literature through translation. She is a board member of the CERES (Centre for Reception Studies) and of CETRA (Centre for Translation Studies), both at KU Leuven.
Jack McMartin is a PhD candidate in Translation Studies at KU Leuven and a member of the Centre for Reception Studies (CERES, http://www.receptionstudies.be) at KU Leuven, Campus Brussels. His research project is called ‘From Boek to Book: Flanders in the Transnational Literary Field’.
Stefania Caristia: “À la croisée du quantitatif et du qualitatif : proposition pour une analyse pondérée des traductions en revue”
L’analyse quantitative des traductions de textes littéraires étrangers publiées dans les revues d’un champ littéraire national, menée selon une perspective chronologique, est un outil fondamental pour avoir une vision globale de l’état des réseaux internationaux, des tendances de diffusion des littératures étrangères et de leurs évolutions. Néanmoins, lorsqu’on envisage l’étude quantitative d’un corpus vaste et hétérogène, les différences qualitatives existantes à l’intérieur du corpus (comme la diffusion effective des périodiques auprès du public des lecteurs, leur incidence sur la critique littéraire militante et la capacité à attirer l’attention des grandes maisons d’édition) en sortent aplanies. L’analyse statistique finit ainsi par représenter de manière déformée la portée de la diffusion des littératures étrangères traduites.
Une analyse pondérée qui tienne compte des différences entre les revues pourrait en revanche donner des résultats plus proches de la situation réelle, en offrant au chercheur la possibilité de mieux observer de grandes masses de données, ainsi que de mettre en lumière des éléments qui passent inaperçus lors de l’analyse qualitative, ou qui seraient biaisées par le regard de l’observateur.
À partir d’un corpus de dix-huit revues littéraires et politico-littéraires italiennes, actives entre 1944 et 1970, sélectionnées en cherchant à représenter au mieux la diversité des tendances esthétiques et idéologiques de l’époque, on exposera une méthode d’analyse pondérée des traductions qui mesure quantitativement des phénomènes qualitatifs. Il s’agit de prendre en compte certains caractères fondamentaux dans la vie des revues, et en particulier leur diffusion et le capital symbolique dont elles disposent.
Dans un travail d’équipe visant une analyse de grande envergure, cette méthode pourrait inclure d’autres critères ayant une incidence sur la relevance de la publication des traductions dans les revues, tels que le capital symbolique des traducteurs et les modalités de publication, de présentation et de mise en valeur des textes traduits. De même, elle pourrait s’avérer fructueuse pour examiner quantitativement l’évolution de la réception critique des littératures étrangères, en pondérant les articles critiques publiés sur des auteurs et œuvres étrangères. ↑
Stefania Caristia a étudié en Italie (Turin), en Belgique (Université catholique de Louvain) et en France (Paris-Sorbonne). Actuellement, elle est lectrice d’italien à l’Université de Besançon et doctorante en littérature comparée auprès du CRLC de Sorbonne-Université. Elle prépare une thèse sur “La réception de la littérature française dans les revues littéraires italiennes de la deuxième moitié du XXe siècle”, sous la direction de Jean-Yves Masson et Anne-Rachel Hermetet (Université d”Angers). Ses publications portent sur les revues italiennes, sur les réseaux franco-italiens des revues et sur la réception et la traduction de la littérature française du XXe siècle en Italie.
Fabio Guidali: “Branding Foreign Literature. Translated Short Stories in Italian Women’s “Rotocalchi” (1932-1938)”
Literary translations in the years of Fascism allow a deep investigation on the regime’s cultural policy, on its aims and its shortcomings; they are a well-studied topic, considering that in no other Western country the number of translations was as high as in Italy. Nevertheless, translations have beeninvestigated only in the field of book production, while versions of foreign literary texts published in“rotocalchi”, that is to say women’s and literary magazines that flourished in the Thirties and sold hundreds of thousands of copies, have been excluded so far from any examination. Yet a first survey significantly reveals that the percentage of translated literature in “rotocalchi” is even higher than its presence in books.
Grounding on weeklies for urban middle-class women such as Lei and Novella, issued by the publisher Angelo Rizzoli, who was the protagonist of the editorial success of this kind of magazines, the paper draws attention firstly to translated short stories and to the problems concerning their analysis. Indeed, it is extremely difficult to identify unequivocally the authors of many short stories (because of the frequent use of pen names) and consequently their source. How can we thus count the number of foreign short stories, identify their linguistic and cultural origin, and find statistical trends? How much can approximation of the data affect the result of this investigation? Can that same approximation help to reconstruct the reception and the perception of the reader of the time? What role did pseudotranslations play? How can we identify the channels through which foreign short stories came to Italy and the reliability of the translators?
Secondly, the paper aims at examining the changing in the inner structure of the periodicals, mainly Lei, which made more and more room for short stories in the Thirties. What places were dedicated to foreign literature in the magazines? Who were the translators and how did they mediate and modify the texts for the Italian reader? Were there typical procedures for publishing translated short stories?
Thirdly, the research emphasises the circulation of literary translations from a qualitative point of view, in order to get an insight into the public of the magazines. Indeed, Rizzoli’s “rotocalchi” displayed a sort of branding as far as the choice of foreign literature was concerned, meaning that any cultural context was identified with special literary and social distinctive features. Did the American, the French or the German short stories predominated? What different cultural models did they involve (e.g. the seductive but submissive French lady or the emancipated American woman)? What phases can we recognize and what influence had the regime’s growing concern with translations?
Therefore, the paper, from the point of view of the history of culture and of publishing, wishes to connect quantitative and qualitative analysis, offering a methodological focus on translated literatura as a way to study mentalities and tastes of large audiences. ↑
Fabio Guidali earned his Ph.D. in contemporary history from the University of Milan and the Freie Universität Berlin. He is a didactic assistant at the Dipartimento di Studi Storici at the University of Milan. He is the author of the monographies Il secolo lungo di Gabriele Mucchi. Una biografia intellettuale e politica (Milan 2012) and Scrivere con il mondo in testa. Intellettuali europei tra cultura e potere 1898-1956 (Milan-Udine 2016). He also published several essays on European intellectuals and periodicals in the Twentieth century and has already examined literary translation on Italian weeklies in the Thirties. He is member of the Organizing Committee of the European Society for Periodical Research (ESPRit).
Mila Milani: “Translation, Literary Journals, and the Italian Communist Party (1945-1961)”
This paper aims at discussing methodological challenges in the study of translation and periodicals both in terms of combining quantitative and qualitative analyses of translations (difficult for practical and linguistic reasons), and in terms of integrating more effectively the study of ‘transnational’ networks with an in-depth analysis of dynamics at national level.
The term ‘transnational’ fosters the idea of dialogue, and in periodicals this can take the shape of a tactical choice of editorial notes, foreign contributions and reviews of foreign literature that unveil flows and networks beyond national borders. However, somewhat paradoxically, the transnational dialogue ‘can dissolve some national barriers while simultaneously strengthening or creating others’ (Clavin 2005, 431) depending on the tensions within the national political and literary fields. As Heilbron and Sapiro (2002) suggest, translation – here conceived in its broadest sense as cultural exchange – can be for instance a means of legitimation, in so far as it can contribute to the positioning of editors in their intellectual and literary fields. A close analysis of the role of translation can therefore shed light on the power dynamics underpinning both the national and the transnational intellectual fields.
The paper will look at the case study of a literary journal connected with the Italian Communist party, Il Contemporaneo (1954-1961), and assess the tensions in relation to foreign literature and exchanges with foreign intellectuals. After the Second World War, the cultural exchange between Italian intellectuals and other countries was embedded in a specifically national political dimension, as well as in the broader context of the Cold War. In particular, left-wing cultural operators had to negotiate their cultural needs and transnational orientations in a cultural climate where the Italian Communist Party (PCI) had to find its own identity in relation to its proximity to the Soviet Union (and the conflicts following the Hungarian crisis in 1956). By interweaving the analysis of the documents from the party’s cultural committees with the investigation of the ‘transnational’ narratives developed on the pages of the journal, this paper intends to trace the PCI’s objectives and changes of directions in crucial historical times, before and after the Hungarian crisis. ↑
Mila Milani is Assistant Professor at the University of Warwick. Before joining Warwick, she was research assistant on the AHRC-funded project ‘Mapping Literary Space: Literary Journals, Publishing Firms and Intellectuals in Italy, 1940-1960’ at the University of Reading. She completed her PhD at the University of Manchester, researching the role of poetry translation in the post-WWII Italian publishing field. Her publications include articles on national and transnational networks of intellectuals in post-war Italy, and on the strategies of poetry translation of key Italian publishers. Her research interests focus on the sociology of translation, history of publishing and history of culture.