Politics of the Spirit. International Seminar (30 November – 1 December, 2017)

 

SpeakersProgrammeAbstracts

Abstracts

Christophe Charle: “Rebuilding a Europe of intellectuals? Discussions and organization forms in the interwar period”

Reine Meylaerts: “Cultural Mediators and their complex Transfer Practices”

Simona Škrabec: “The 1933 Dubrovnik PEN congress or How to Deal with the Present that was Already History”

Rachel Potter: “Barcelona 1935: International PEN and Literary Internationalism”

Alejandra Giuliani: “Los encuentros de los PEN Clubs y del Instituto Internacional de Cooperación Intelectual en la Buenos Aires de los años 30”

Martin Grandjean: “Entering the League of Nations’ cultural and scientific network: Hispanics and the International Committee on Intellectual Co-operation in the early 1920s”

Jaume Subirana: “Catalan delegates to PEN International congresses (1923-1939)”

Sílvia Coll-Vinent: “Joan Estelrich and International Cultural Cooperation (1917 – 1936)”

Laurie-Anne Laget:  “The Spanish Center of the PEN Club through its first sumiller, Ramón Gómez de la Serna: from a project of international solidarity to an expression of the tensions of the literary society of Madrid (1922-1924)”

Ângela Fernandes: “The International Dimension of the Portuguese ‘Politics of the Spirit’”

Mauricio Zabalgoitia:  “Torres Bodet and the ‘male pedagogies’: radiography of a thought of transcultural and transnational flow”

Gabriella Gavagnin: “Barcelona en el mapa internacional de la modernitat: els intel·lectuals convidats pel Conferentia Club”

Joan Safont: “Les relacions internacionals del PEN Català fins 1936: convidats, congressistes i visitants”

Christophe Charle: “Rebuilding a Europe of intellectuals? Discussions and organization forms in the interwar period”

The extent of the disaster caused by the World War, the feeling of a “declining Europe”, the fear of Bolshevism assimilated to Asian barbarism, and the phobia of Americanization provide arguments for a regrouping of intellectuals aiming toward the rebuilding of an enduring peace.

These mutual understandings will eventually adopt official forms such as the organizations linked to the League of Nations, semi-official forms such as the associations or journals campaigning for a new Europe in the various countries, or partially indirect forms reflected in academic exchanges. We aim to review these forms of organization and the divergent conceptions of the Europe to be as well as the level of intellectual involvement in different countries within this contradictory context. In particular, we will focus on the role played by different kinds of intellectual congresses and their echo, the role of journals addressing this issue, and that of quasi-official university meetings. 

[FR] “Refonder une Europe des intellectuels? Débats et formes d’organisation dans l’entre deux guerres”

L’ampleur du désastre causé par la guerre mondiale, le sentiment de « déclin de l’Europe », la peur du bolchevisme, assimilé à la barbarie asiatique, la phobie de l’américanisation redonnent des arguments en faveur d’un rapprochement des intellectuels pour refonder la paix durable.

Ces rapprochements vont prendre des formes officielles avec les organismes liés à la SDN, semi officiels avec les associations ou revues qui militent pour une nouvelle Europe dans les divers pays, ou partiellement indirects avec les échanges universitaires. On essaiera de faire le bilan de ces formes d’organisation et des conceptions divergentes sur ce que doit être l’Europe et ce que peuvent les intellectuels dans différents pays dans ce contexte contradictoire. On examinera notamment le rôle des congrès intellectuels de divers types et leur écho, la fonction des revues qui parlent du thème et celle des rencontres universitaires plus ou moins officielles. 

Reine Meylaerts: “Cultural Mediators and their complex Transfer Practices”

This lecture proposes an innovative conceptual and methodological understanding of the figure of the cultural mediator, defined as a cultural actor active across linguistic, cultural and geographical borders, occupying strategic positions within large networks and being the carrier of cultural transfer. Analysing mediators’ transfer processes, their overlapping actor roles, and transgression of cultural fields from a complexity theory viewpoint will problematize the fixed distinctions between key concepts and roles (such as author, translator, self-translator, critic, animateur d’art, conference organizer, publisher, …). It will also contribute to problematize the fixed distinctions between cultural fields (literature, translation, art,…), and between translation and other (complementary, surrounding, competing…) transfer activities. 

Simona Škrabec: “The 1933 Dubrovnik PEN congress or How to Deal with the Present that was Already History”

The PEN Congress that took place in Dubrovnik between May 26 and May 29, 1933, is remembered as a turning point. The organizers, the PEN centres from Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia, were extremely divergent in their historical backgrounds and ideological orientations. The Slovenes had experienced the methods of cultural assimilation that fascist Italia implemented in the Trieste region during the 1920s. But there was no interest to hear their story among the 300 delegates. F. T. Marinetti was happy to offer the press resounding declarations about the shiny future promised by a victorious fascism. In Yugoslavia, the dictatorship of King Alexander was at its peak. The president of the Serbian PEN, Svetislav Stefanović, in a few years would become one of those Kulturträger who openly praised the racist ideology.

Nevertheless, below the surface of the conservative regime, Yugoslavia’s leftist intellectuals had already built a network of international connections and sought the presence of the progressive German writers in exile who knew that PEN could become a powerful platform for condemning Nazism. Meanwhile, the official German delegation, already purified in the strict Nazi ideology, was sent abroad to convince the fellow writers that literature should never be involved in politics. The resolution in defence of freedom of the intellect, proposed by the American PEN, and the defiant and heroic voice of Ernest Toller, suddenly turned a perilous present into History: despite the protests of the representatives of the Hitler’s Germany and their sympathisers, Nazism was condemned by the Assembly.

J.V. Foix, the delegate of the Catalan PEN, obtained the agreement that the 1935 Congress would take place in Barcelona. This would be one of the last international events before the Civil War, profoundly marked with the tragic losses during those years. The ample international attendance at the Congress and the circumstances Foix experienced personally, strongly influenced his political thought and his literary creativity. 

Rachel Potter: “Barcelona 1935: International PEN and Literary Internationalism”

From early on Spanish and South American writers were central to the Writers’ Organisation, International PEN, founded in London in 1921. PEN centres sprang up in Madrid and Barcelona in 1922, Mexico City in 1923, Santiago in 1925, Buenos Aires in 1929, La Paz in 1932, and Rio De Janeiro and Bogotá in 1936.

This paper considers the parameters and significance of the influence of these centres by focusing on the International PEN Congress held in Barcelona in June 1935. A year prior to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, PEN delegates from around the world descended on Barcelona. Hosted by Catalan writers, including the recently imprisoned – and released – Catalan linguist Pompeu Fabra, other delegates included International PEN President, H. G. Wells, Italian Fascist F. T. Marinetti, who spoke in favour of a PEN global bureau of translations, Indian PEN President and theosophist, Sophia Wadia, who received a standing ovation for her speech in favour of communication between Eastern and Western cultures, and German writer in exile, Klaus Mann, who talked movingly on behalf of Nazi victims.

One debate focused on whether action should be taken to persuade the Haitian Government to reconsider the case of imprisoned Haitian writer, Jacques Roumain; another centred on PEN’s role in the world as an organisation devoted to ‘the ‘protection of the rights of authors to freedom of expression’.

This paper argues that by focusing on the role of this non-governmental writers’ organisation – and its Spanish and South American centres – new understandings of literary internationalism come into view. From the vantage point of Barcelona in 1935, we see an intellectual map connecting the linguistic and cultural claims of minority populations in Catalonia, Warsaw, and Prague, a different linguistic literary map linking Spanish literature with avant-garde groups in Buenos Aires and Mexico City; a political map connecting European socialists, as well as Spanish, Italian and Argentine Fascists; a human rights map yoking together persecuted and imprisoned writers in Barcelona, Port-au-Prince, and Berlin.

I argue that there are political, linguistic and aesthetic implications in the international landscape that emerges from attention to International PEN, and its 1935 Congress, particularly in its announcement of a commitment to the fight for writers’ human rights. 

Alejandra Giuliani: “Los encuentros de los PEN Clubs y del Instituto Internacional de Cooperación Intelectual en la Buenos Aires de los años 30”

Durante el mes de Septiembre de 1936 se desarrollaron en Buenos Aires dos encuentros internacionales de escritores: El XIV Congreso Internacional de los PEN Clubs y la Séptima Conversación de la Organización de Cooperación Intelectual de la Sociedad de las Naciones, organizada por el Instituto Internacional de Cooperación Intelectual (IICI).

El objetivo general de esta Exposición es contribuir al conocimiento de la historia de los mediadores culturales hispánicos en su participación en redes de la modernidad internacional durante la primera mitad del Siglo XX. El objetivo específico es analizar la participación de algunos mediadores culturales latinoamericanos en aquellos dos encuentros, así como considerar las temáticas transnacionales que ellos desplegaron en sus discursos. La Exposición desarrollará, además, la pertinencia de enfocar hacia los roles de ciertos mediadores culturales en las redes editoriales argentina e hispanoamericana de la época, que actuaron publicando, traduciendo y constituyendo así a Buenos Aires como nuevo nodo hispanoamericano editorial en esa segunda mitad de los años 30.

La Exposición hará un recorrido por las participaciones y los vínculos de intelectuales hispanoamericanos reunidos y se detendrá en: Victoria Ocampo, la escritora y directora de la Revista y editorial Sur, quien fue Vicepresidenta de la Comisión Organizadora y delegada oficial por Argentina en el Congreso de los PEN Clubs;  Francisco Romero, participante por Argentina de la Conversación organizada por el IICI; Alcides Arguedas, de Bolivia, quien participó en ambos encuentros; Domingo Melfi, delegado oficial de Chile al Congreso de los PEN Club; Carlos Reyles, huésped de Honor a ese Congreso y participante en la Conversación del IICI por Uruguay;  y Pedro Enríquez Ureña, participante por la República Dominicana en la Conversación del IICI.

La Exposición se centrará en el análisis histórico de valiosas publicaciones oficiales que el PEN Club y de la Comisión Argentina de Cooperación Intelectual editaron en ocasión de los respectivos encuentros. También se tendrá en cuenta la prensa argentina, que informó profusamente sobre el Congreso de los PEN Clubs y, en menor medida, del entonces llamado entretien del IICI.  Además, se considerará la historiografía sobre el Congreso de Editores e Impresores de Buenos Aires de 1938 así como sobre los campos editoriales de la época y, en especial sobre las editoriales Sur, Espasa-Calpe Argentina y Ercilla. 

[EN] “The PEN Clubs and the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation meetings in Buenos Aires during the 1930s”

Two international writers’ meetings were held in Buenos Aires in September 1936: the XIV° International PEN Clubs Congress and the VII° Conversation of the League of Nations Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, organized by the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation (IICI).

The objective of this paper is to contribute to the History of Hispanic cultural mediators as participants of the networks of international modernity during the first half of the twentieth century. In particular, we want to study the participation of some Latin American cultural mediators in those two meetings, as well as to consider the transnational topics that they unfolded in their speeches. This work will also set forth the importance of the roles of certain cultural mediators in the Argentine and Spanish-American publishing networks of the time, who made Buenos Aires the new Hispanic editorial node in the second half of the 1930s through their publications and translations.

This study will analyze the participations and links of Latin American intellectuals in this gathering and will pay special attention to: Victoria Ocampo, the writer and director of Sur magazine and Sur editorial, who was also the Vice President of the organizing committee and official delegate for Argentina at the PEN Clubs Congress; Francisco Romero, representing Argentina at the VII° Conversation; Alcides Arguedas, from Bolivia, who participated in both meetings; Domingo Melfi, official delegate of Chile to the PEN Clubs Congress; Carlos Reyles, from Uruguay, Guest of Honor to the Congress and participant at the IICI’s Conversation; and Pedro Enríquez Ureña, participant for the Dominican Republic at the VII° Conversation.

This work will focus on the historical analysis of relevant official publications of the PEN Club and the Argentine Commission of Intellectual Cooperation on the occasion of the respective meetings. We will also take into consideration the Argentine press, which reported profusely on the PEN Clubs Congress and, to a lesser extent, on the so-called entretien of the IICI. In addition, we will study the historiography of the Buenos Aires Publishers and Printers Congress of 1938 and of the editorial fields of the period, concentrating our attention in the southern publishing houses Sur, Espasa-Calpe Argentina and Ercilla. 

Martin Grandjean: “Entering the League of Nations’ cultural and scientific network: Hispanics and the International Committee on Intellectual Co-operation in the early 1920s”

Founded in 1922 by the League of Nations upon observation that the pacification of Europe may benefit from a better collaboration between scientific elites, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) is responsible for coordinating the restructuration of knowledge circulation. Bringing together leading researchers at the height of their career, such as Albert Einstein or Marie Curie, and chaired by Henri Bergson, the Committee weaves a complex network between transnational scientific institutions and societies, congresses and individuals.

Focused on the involvement of Hispanics in this international dynamic, this contribution proposes an analysis of the work and functioning of the ICIC between 1919 and 1927 by visualizing the network of 3.200 people indexed in the thousands of documents produced and received by the organization. Thus, this work provides a new understanding of the internal organization of the Intellectual Cooperation, as well as interesting insights about its relations with the rest of the scientific and diplomatic world. It allows a contextualization of numerous individual trajectories, like those of a selection of Spanish and South-American personalities.

In particular, we will show the necessity to compare the “micro” structure of relationships as mapped by the archive with the “macro” formal structure of the institution. We will see that the macro-analysis of the institutional level reveals structures that were not clear at the individual level, showing the need for a constant back-and-forth between the scales. This will also be an opportunity to recall that network analysis is a modeling process that does not relieve the researcher of the consultation of the archival documents themselves. Finally, do the thousands of documents, in a distant reading approach, confirm the internal organization of the League of Nations and the official position of Hispanic diplomats and intellectuals or do they show individuals/communities that bypass the hierarchy? 

Jaume Subirana: “Catalan delegates to PEN International congresses (1923-1939)”

The Catalan PEN Centre attended from the very beginning the annual congresses organized by PEN International. At the first one, held in London in 1923, the Catalan delegates were the President of the organization, Pompeu Fabra, and its Secretary, Josep Millàs Raurell. With the help of the documents found at PEN’s archive at the Harry Ransom Center for the Humanities of the University of Texas at Austin, we will study the presence and the names of the Catalan delegates in congresses held until the Spanish Civil War, with the aim to ​​establish a list (and a network) of Catalan literary mediators, and to underline some elements, links and common interests, as well as the circumstances that explain Catalan participation in the international literary life in the twenties and thirties through the main non-governmental world organization. 

[CAT] “Els delegats catalans als congressos internacionals del PEN (1923-1939)”

El centre català del PEN va ser present ja des de la seva fundació als congressos anuals organitzats pel PEN Internacional: al primer, a Londres l’any 1923, hi van van assistir com a delegats Pompeu Fabra, president, i Josep Millàs Raurell, secretari de l’organització. A partir de l’estudi de la documentació del PEN dipositada al Harry Ransom Center de la University of Texas at Austin, resseguirem la presència i els noms dels delegats catalans als diversos congressos celebrats fins a la guerra civil espanyola, amb la idea d’establir una llista (i una xarxa) de noms de mediadors literaris catalans, i d’apuntar alguns elements, vincles i interessos comuns d’aquests, així com diverses circumstàncies que van determinar la participació catalana durant els anys vint i trenta a la vida cultural internacional a través de l’organització literària no governamental de referència. 

Sílvia Coll-Vinent: “Joan Estelrich and International Cultural Cooperation (1917 – 1936)”

This paper provides an overview of the intellectual activities carried out by Joan Estelrich (Felanitx, 1896 – Paris, 1958), homme de lettres and cultural agent closely linked to conservative politician Francesc Cambó. Particular attention is paid to his collaboration with the PEN Club and the International Commission for Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC), part of the League of Nations. Firstly, I shall examine his work for the campaign of Expansió Catalana (1917-1922), to then move on to his involvement in organizing —in the mid-twnties and within the framework of the League of Nations— the Catalan representation in the ICIC. Using the documents from the Fons Joan Estelrich held at the Biblioteca de Catalunya, I shall also review the role Catalan institutions played in the efforts for European cultural cooperation in the late twenties and early mid-thirties, from Expansió Catalana to the Catalan section of the PEN. I shall finally attempt to make sense of the speeches and contributions which were delivered at the XIII PEN meeting in Barcelona (Mai 1935), the humanistic entretien in Budapest (June 1936), and both the PEN and ICIC meetings in Buenos Aires (September 1936), against the context of the rise of totalitarisms. An additional aim of this paper is to assess the place which general topics (among them the question of Europe and the future of literature) occupied within those institutional meetings, amounting to a deep-seated sense of cultural pessimism. 

Laurie-Anne Laget:  “The Spanish Center of the PEN Club through its first sumiller, Ramón Gómez de la Serna: from a project of international solidarity to an expression of the tensions of the literary society of Madrid (1922-1924)”

In the 1920s, Ramón Gómez de la Serna became the nodal point of a social network of authors, artists, chief editors of periodicals and publishers whose construction was part of his process of professionalization in order to be recognized as a well-known public figure of the literary circles of his time. As part of this process, he also undertook an internationalization process through repeated trips to Europe, collaborations in the French, British or Italian press, as well as the first translations of his works into French or, later, Italian. One of the results of this social work was his appointment as sumiller («sommelier») of the first Spanish center of the PEN Club —founded in 1922, with Azorín as its first president— which contributed to the internationalization of certain writers such as Ramón Gómez de la Serna.

But, although the initial ambition of the Spanish center of the PEN Club was «to bring together the entire literary family, […] giving cordiality and greater cohesion of class, office or profession», the troubled history of the first Spanish center in the twenties revealed that what was Spaniards perceived in that Club had to do with the inherent tensions within the Spanish literary field rather than with international solidarity. The discussions around the PEN Club brought to light the positions held by the different Poets, Essayists and Novelists of the Spanish literary field, and the foundation of the Spanish center ended revealing conflicts around the symbolic value of writers and the realities of  the Madrid’s literary sociability. 

[ES] “El centro español del PEN Club a través de su primer «sumiller», Ramón Gómez de la Serna: de proyecto de solidaridad internacional a expresión de las tensiones de la sociedad literaria madrileña (1922-1924)”

A partir de los años veinte Ramón Gómez de la Serna fue punto nodal de una red social de autores, artistas, directores de publicaciones periódicas y editores cuya construcción formó parte de su proceso de profesionalización para constituirse como una firma literaria reconocible. Como parte de ese proceso, emprendió asimismo un proceso de internacionalización a través de repetidos viajes por Europa, de colaboraciones en la prensa francesa, británica o italiana, así como de las primeras publicaciones de sus obras traducidas al francés y, posteriormente, al italiano. Uno de los resultados de este trabajo social fue su nombramiento como «sumiller» del primer centro español del PEN Club, fundado en 1922 y presidido por Azorín, que contribuyó a la internacionalización de ciertos escritores como el propio Ramón Gómez de la Serna.

Pero, aunque la ambición inicial del centro español del PEN Club era «reunir en su seno a toda la familia literaria, […] dándole cordialidad y una mayor cohesión de clase, de oficio o de gremio», la accidentada historia del primer centro español en los años veinte reveló que lo que se percibía en ese Club internacional desde España tenía que ver con las tensiones inherentes al campo literario más que una solidaridad internacional. Las discusiones alrededor del PEN Club hicieron manifiestas las posiciones que ocupaban los distintos Poetas, Ensayistas y Novelistas españoles en el campo literario de entreguerras, de modo que la fundación del centro español exteriorizó conflictos en torno al valor simbólico de los escritores y al funcionamiento poco dinámico de la sociabilidad literaria madrileña. 

Ângela Fernandes: “The International Dimension of the Portuguese ‘Politics of the Spirit’”

During the 1930s the Portuguese authoritarian regime consolidated its system of cultural and artistic guidance by means of a state organism called “Secretariado de Propaganda Nacional” (“Secretariat for National Propaganda”), created in 1933. The director of this organism was the literary author and public intellectual Antonio Ferro (1895-1956), who had been close to the Portuguese artistic avantgarde movements since Orpheu (1915). In his newspaper article “Política do espírito” (“Politics of the spirit”), published in November 1932, Antonio Ferro coined the expression and the key-concept underlying his future political and cultural intervention: all initiatives of the “national propaganda” during the 30s and the 40s were meant to be part of a true “politics of the spirit”. In Ferro’s writings, we may grasp the tension between the Portuguese nationally focused politics of the regime and the international background where this intellectual and conceptual frame had emerged.

In order to map the international dimension of the Portuguese “politics of the spirit”, and also the international (both European and trans-Atlantic) connections of the intellectuals of the time, we shall analyse not only Antonio Ferro’s most relevant writings but also the testimonies of other protagonists of the Portuguese intellectual scenario, such as Júlio Dantas (1876-1962), who delivered a speech on the “Política Internacional do Espírito” (“International Politics of the Spirit”) at the International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation, in Paris, in October 1933, or Fidelino de Figueredo (1888-1967), who participated in the 1936 International Writers Congress in Buenos Aires, or Luís Forjaz Trigueiros (1915-2000) who published a series of interviews with French authors in his book Capital do Espírito (1939). 

Mauricio Zabalgoitia:  “Torres Bodet and the ‘male pedagogies’: radiography of a thought of transcultural and transnational flow”

Taking as a starting point a broad notion of education, which is both formal, literary, social and from daily life, in this work the thought of Jaime Torres Bodet is mapped from a perspective that adds gender to these layers of instruction. Hence, the three constructs that cross contemporary human life – childhood, youth and adulthood – lend to radiograph an intellectual thought that, we propose, ranging from sex/gender renegotiations and into homosocial spaces and networks – whether in the modernismo or the Contemporáneos group, but also in their diplomatic relations and with foreign intellectuals. This thought is reflected not only in public texts, and ones of cultural and educational dissemination, but also in letters, phrases, notes and informal comments. All these configures what we call «male pedagogies», which in terms of the transatlantic outstanding diplomatic presence of Torres Bodet, are established in a transnational framework of transcultural flow of meanings, concepts and identities; space in which the Mexican intellectual is configured as a prominent cultural mediator. 

[ES] “Torres Bodet y las pedagogías masculinas: radiografía de un pensamiento de circulación transcultural y transnacional”

Partiendo de una noción amplia de educación, lo que es a la vez formal, literaria y de la vida social y cotidiana, en este trabajo se cartografía el pensamiento de Jaime Torres Bodet desde una perspectiva que suma el género a estas capas de formación. De ahí que los tres constructos que atraviesan la vida humana contemporánea –niñez, juventud y adultez— se presten a radiografiar un pensamiento intelectual que, proponemos, se configura desde renegociaciones del sexo/género en espacios y redes homosociales –sea en el modernismo o el grupo Contemporáneos, pero también sus relaciones diplomáticas y con intelectuales extranjeros—. Dicho pensamiento se cifra no sólo en los textos públicos, y de difusión cultural y educativa, sino en cartas, frases destacadas, apuntes y comentarios informales. Esto termina por configurar lo que denominamos “pedagogías masculinas”, que en términos de la destacada presencia diplomática transatlántica del mexicano, se establecen en un marco transnacional de circulación transcultural de significados, conceptos e identidades; espacio en el que Torres Bodet se configura como un destacado mediador cultural. 

Gabriella Gavagnin: “Barcelona en el mapa internacional de la modernitat: els intel·lectuals convidats pel Conferentia Club”

Una de les entitats culturals que va desplegar una intensa obra de promoció d’intercanvis internacionals durant el període d’entreguerres va ser la societat barcelonina Conferentia Club, fundada el 1929 per Francesc Cambó, polític i mecenes, i presidida per Isabel Llorach, que pertanyia a una acabalada família de la burgesia catalana. Al llarg de gairebé dues dècades el Conferentia Club va dinamitzar la vida cultural de la ciutat organitzant conferències sobre una àmplia varietat de temes i disciplines, des de la literatura i l’art a la filologia i la lingüística, des de la filosofia i el pensament polític a la història i l’arqueologia. Va aconseguir convidar a Barcelona els exponents més destacats de la modernitat intel·lectual d’arreu (André Maurois, Paul Valéry, Antoine Meillet, Paul Pelliot, Karl Vossler, Theodor Däubler, Herman Keyserling, Giuseppe Ungaretti, Massimo Bontempelli, Tadeus Zielinski, Nicolae Yorga, etc.). Les vetllades organitzades pel Conferentia Club es van convertir en manifestacions culturals de prestigi amb un volgut i marcat caràcter internacional que afavoria activitats de mediació cultural tant a nivell social com personal. La present aportació es proposa d’oferir una visió de conjunt de les conferències que es van celebrar amb atenció a alguns aspectes, com ara les àrees culturals de procedència dels intel·lectuals convidats, les temàtiques desenvolupades i les llengües vehiculars utilitzades, o bé el reguitzell d’activitats complementàries que determinades conferències podien ser susceptibles de generar. 

[EN] “Barcelona in the International Map of the Modernity: the Intellectuals invited by the Conferentia Club”

One of the cultural organization that carried out an intensive advocacy for international exchange in the interwar period was the barcelonian society Conferentia Club, founded in 1929 by Francesc Cambó, politician and patron, and chaired by Isabel Llorach, who belonged to a wealthy bourgeois catalan family. During almost twenty years the Conferentia Club revitalized the cultural life of the city organizing conferences about a broad range of subjects and fields of study, from  literature and art to philology and linguistics, from philosophy and political thinking to history and archaeology. She managed to invite to Barcelona the most prominent exponents of the intelectual modernity from everywhere (André Maurois, Paul Valéry, Antoine Meillet, Paul Pelliot, Karl Vossler, Theodor Däubler, Herman Keyserling, Giuseppe Ungaretti, Massimo Bontempelli, Tadeus Zielinski, Nicolae Yorga, etc.). The conferences organized by the Conferentia Club became prestigious cultural events with a marked international character that promoted activities of cultural intermediation both on a social and a personal level. The present contribution aims to provide an overview of the conferences held with a special focus on some aspects, as geocultural origin of the invited intellectuals, the subjects developed and vehicular languages used in the conferences, and also of the different complementary activities that some conferences would promote. 

Joan Safont: “Les relacions internacionals del PEN Català fins 1936: convidats, congressistes i visitants”

Fundat l’abril de 1922, pocs mesos després de la creació a Londres del PEN Club, el PEN Català va esdevenir de seguida un àmbit de trobada i internacionalització de la cultura catalana. Des de llavors, el PEN Català ha esdevingut un autèntic exemple de diplomàcia cultural, que enguany celebra el 95è aniversari. En aquesta tasca de relacions internacionals en el món cultural i fins la Guerra Civil, el PEN va ser l’amfitrió de nombroses visites dels més il·lustres escriptors internacionals, que van passar per Barcelona convidats pel PEN i van poder conèixer de primer mà l’activitat cultural catalana. Estem parlant de noms com Paul Valéry, G.K Chesterton, Luigi Pirandello o Charles Vildrac, tots ells vinculats amb els centres PEN respectius, convidats a pronunciar conferències i a participar en les activitats del PEN durant els anys 20 i 30. El plat fort d’aquesta activitat de recepció i acolliment dels escriptors internacionals a Catalunya, i del seu contacte amb la literatura catalana, va arribar el maig de 1935, amb la celebració del Congrés Internacional del PEN Club a Barcelona, sota la presidència de H.G. Wells i Pompeu Fabra. 

[EN] “The international relations of the Catalan PEN Centre until 1936: Guests, Speakers and Visitors”

Founded in April 1922, few months after the creation of the PEN Club in London, the Catalan PEN Centre soon became a meeting place for the internationalization of Catalan culture. Since then, Catalan Centre PEN has become a true example of cultural diplomacy, which celebrates its 95th anniversary this year. In its task of international relations in the cultural world and until the Civil War, the PEN hosted numerous visits by the most illustrious international writers. All of them stayed in Barcelona invited by PEN and were able to know first-hand the Catalan cultural activity. We are talking about names such as Paul Valéry, GK Chesterton, Luigi Pirandello or Charles Vildrac. All of them were linked to their respective PEN centres and were invited to lecture and participate in PEN activities during the 20s and 30s. The culmination of this hosting activity of international writers in Catalonia and contact with Catalan literature took place in May 1935, with the celebration of the International Congress of the PEN Club in Barcelona, chaired by HG Wells and Pompeu Fabra. 

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